Translating Discriminatory Expressions in Pramoedya Ananta Toer's Outstanding Novel

Nunun Tri Widarwati, Bayu H Wicaksono


Although studies on the expression of social class discrimination in the novel have much been documented, there is a paucity of research addressing how the expression of social class discrimination is translated into English. In response to this void, the present study aims at examining translation techniques in the expressions of social class discrimination in the novels written by Pramoedya Ananta Tour. This research employed a translation case study research design. The data were collected through observations and Focus Group Discussion. The data originated from Pramoedya Ananta Toer's novel, containing clauses containing social class discrimination. In this study, two questions are posed. First, what expressions of social class discrimination were found in the novel? Second, how was the expression containing social class discrimination translated into English? The findings showcase that the expressions of social class discrimination encompass subordination, stereotypical perspective, marginalization, and violence. In the same way, the most dominant translation technique is established equivalence, followed by modulation, explicitation, implicitation, paraphrase, transposition, pure borrowing, addition, reduction, generalization, discursive creation, particularization, description, variant borrowing, and deletion. The use of those translation techniques indicates that the quality of the translation is considered good. Discussion of implications empirically and practically is presented in the last part of this article.


Discrimination; Indonesia; Literary work; Social class; Translation

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